k D 39 eeQ\Q,2j53_-BM|2ÉPLR Qo>ob) i^WO7,ĵMQdR&7h.:E :(Z2^,M6ra3]4fD3DD333DD3nFqD 2Qs <E4SY$YTTUDUIeRaVTaVUYlqt[e6mXIƒui\UaV}_ug^ݦTc.ZnKP蘸wD@3@٫s\/-AjKayDZgjiF)6*3bLhwHڈYIpEq_U^&^n4YSWϫeG~ "`upu>&33n4զgƛ ɲGLio6+.!ɫ8YU1p^9Da[O bd&\:Gm9\sH? 䐘6oc+ܥU9RAB5b!*#9`.Pz@p *P qnAEPC J))@ Ŀᡨ(j @NI~˺]lv (V(3aVN1Z "k(]H&%FQw g[IhFKe3 6k۽"_`dq8 kb|N} BpKݎC2H!nJgWpVԟY~Kl>,Ϟ}hM98o0 rg^ؖ7;6  @!o)3?ahIR  %$k%i>7%a%=C4C&,4IOe魄 @%R ,3 %`0\2j@fH!Yn9|ܢ<1c,&2?ŴZZA##* rj@ Bsj  abl 8)D&(y h0Ψplܴ;)U:4 B:O0~&@C €Jt3Rh#ʟ:#0 J{+& 1 )] ҁn)D@Bur4 PE5e{7a(Hkh*T Ȃ.6{e ;&V?<" "!  $. ~TB\WLL:\A̐BTE=\K0<:?``ѿ P!t0A- 6V&/ '$s#l{Be ^p2|jP1ţdj9(BMD g TQ鹢>^M)V~L_ZMs[:CI6 D0ZǬxRϪH5`a,@dW][k ')dC* /sO^@K Dѣ0`į?tb`b{ijj٠3f֌X⢺7 مٙR[I>~lg_y}Jz21b0 !%L~nB:@?M? 1/aI%MP'c肚f$n,: Ac0 r(8%ۊT@73 (Xhnp'@"a1.:P!880,sD @*f@/ D0 C ; i /aI KMOh i%F]$ ngjUQ-Q%62ynJu,[8 F@ԠgC],,h/B GDT}H3y-IX#FXfxmd0'm0#V RNl탙e FU= {<7nEsǓ1ʚ׬̀MbwĵR֍A;*ۦ:8U呔2\mSjb%>>[%L-B6|ytLuR&60 |o͉Pίs!so`KzZlVUѾr„s}O{K٨&?6TRNlÅEenB5c!2g9`.y<)Vt3i՜3׼>Vݬ/wD(*SfBGK\y=vIU_AŀRp +JR!I*(d;PErRݨ ]XDpJqr Ā Z#hL+cgaM?5>TƖ~M>@uIS b@N` F v`1 ba\c0;@P1n I"hI&bIo@Ɍh 0  O4i5NcOBe$ ]"HU}Y\1maå%\r±aN#& ytv e<^L壧dk0#Q TQ3m\( 0ٷ[a(DQqmh"CU×4a^ Y7ai @:;1+Z R<%=dqkp%Ԃy `!; K7K41 IE`*K ąmt ɅJGBH@ :-0bI+f4^ uZ#}t6Fu4w_$˴H@M ůDQ՘_ Opdـ v4 6=a(00Xrު}|;VefrWrѮa(bn&VQ With the coming of World War II in 1939 Danckwerts became a Sub-Lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve for training in bomb disposal. He was subsequently posted as bomb disposal officer to the Port of London Authority in time for the beginning of the blitz in September 1940. Although he had learned about the defusing of bombs his training had not included anything on magnetic mines whose use against cities had evidently not been anticipated by the Civil Defence authorities. When some of these bombs were dropped on a south London suburb Danckwerts was informed of it by telephone, and he there and then volunteered to attempt defusing them. This he did at great personal risk. On one occasion he worked for two days almost without rest and dealt with sixteen mines during the period. For his outstanding bravery he was awarded the George Cross (1940). Later in the war he was transferred to bomb disposal work abroad and was wounded in a minefield in Sicily. Following this episode he joined the Combined Operations headquarters in Whitehall and was subsequently appointed MBE (1943).

At the end of the war Danckwerts's interest in chemistry reasserted itself, but he decided to take up the closely related subject of chemical engineering as offering better prospects. Since chemical engineering was much more firmly established in the USA than in Britain, he decided to apply for a Commonwealth Fund fellowship for the purpose of obtaining a qualification in the subject at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Having been awarded the fellowship he stayed at MIT for two years and obtained the Master's degree.

Danckwerts's return to Britain in 1948 was at a fortunate moment because, due to a generous benefaction to the university by the Shell group of companies, a new department of chemical engineering was in the process of being formed at Cambridge, under the leadership of T. R. C. Fox. Danckwerts did much excellent research at Cambridge, but he was conscious that, on the teaching side, he had insufficient, industrial experience. For this reason he accepted, in 1954, an invitation to join the Industrial Group of the UK Atomic Energy Authority at Risley, as deputy to Leonard Rotherham. However his stay at Risley was short-lived for in 1956 he was appointed to a professorship of chemical engineering science at Imperial College, a newly created chair within the department of which D. M. Newitt was the head. In this post Danckwerts continued with research and teaching and also played an active part in the affairs of the college.

In 1959 T. R. C. Fox resigned from the Shell chair at Cambridge and Danckwerts was elected in his place. He thus reached his final appointment at the early age of forty-two. He made many innovations in the Cambridge teaching course and also did research of great originality, especially in the fields of mixing phenomena and gas absorption. He visited the USA several times and gave lectures in France, Holland, India, Italy, Japan, and the USSR. Indeed he was much sought after as an international leader, and it was thus natural that he was elected FRS in 1969. Several other honours came to him, notably honorary degrees of the universities of Bradford (1978), Loughborough (1981), and Bath (1983), and the foreign associateship of the National Academy of Engineering, USA (1978). In 1959 he was elected to a professorial fellowship at Pembroke College, Cambridge.

Danckwerts was the president of the Institution of Chemical Engineers during 1965 and 1966. Another great service to his profession was his acting as executive editor of the journal Chemical Engineering Science, and he continued with this work until 1983, six years after he had already retired (1977) from the Shell chair due to a prolonged illness.

Danckwerts had a complex personality and was not an easy person to know. He was very reserved, even aloof, and yet had a strong sense of humour. His outstanding talents were combined with personal charm and considerable forcefulness of character. In 1960 he married Lavinia, daughter of Brigadier-General Duncan Alwyn Macfarlane. They had no children. Danckwerts died in Cambridge 25th October 1984. [K. G. Denbigh in Biographical Memoirs of (DNB 1981-85, p107)

Additional Information (2): Danckwerts early promotions were announced in the London Gazette as follows:

Temp Sub/Lt (Sp)P V Danckwerts to be T/Lt (Sp) 16.6.40 (seniority 28.7.40) (LG, 22.11.40, p.6697)

PV Danckwerts GC confirmed Lt (Sp) 14.10.41 (LG, 28.10.41, p.6251)

Additional Information (3): DANCKWERTS, Prof. Peter Victor, GC 1940: MBE 1943; FRS 1969; FEng; Shell Professor of Chemical Engineering, Cambridge University, 1959-77, then Emeritus Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1959-77; b 14 Oct. 1916: s of late Vice-Adm. V H. Danckwerts, CMG, and Joyce Danckwerts: m 1960, Lavinia, d of late Brig.-Gen. D. A. Macfarlane, CB, DSO, KOSB. Educ: Winchester Coll.; Balliol Coll., Oxford: Massachusetts Inst. of Technology. BA (chemistry) Oxon, 1938; SM (Chemical Engineering Practice), MIT, 1948: MA Cantab 1948. RNVR, 1940-46. Commonwealth Fund Fellow. MIT, 1946-48; Demonstrator and Lecturer, Dept of Chemical Engineering, Cambridge Univ., 1948-54; Deputy Director of Research and Development, Industrial Group, UK Atomic Energy Authority, 1954-56; Prof. of Chemical Engineering Science, Imperial College of Science and Technology, 1956-59. MIChemE 1955 (President, 1965-66); Hon. FIChemE. Hon. Dtech Bradford,1978; Hon.DSc: Loughborough, 1981; Bath, 1983. For. Hon. Mem., Amer. Acad. of Arts and Scis, 1964: For. Associate, Nat. Acad. of Engineering, USA, 1978. (WHO WAS WHO 1981-1990, p 183)

Final Rank:

Other Decorations/Medals: MBE (LG 29.12.42, presented 16.03.45) Citation: "For gallant and undaunted devotion to duty".

GC Location/Sale History:

Date and Place of Death: 25th October 1984, Cambridge.

Cause of Death:

Burial/Cremation:

Obituary: (The Times, 29th October 1984; p14)

Professor Peter Victor DANCKWERTS, GC, MBE, FRS, Shell Professor of Chemical Engineering in the University of Cambridge from 1959 to 1977, and Fellow of Pembroke College, died on October 25 at the age of 68. The son of Vice-Admiral V. H. Danckwerts, he was educated at Winchester and Balliol College, Oxford.

His record was distinguished: as Sub-Lieutenant in the RNVR. he was awarded the George Cross in 1940 for disarming land mines which had fallen on London. The bold imaginative approach needed for this work - for example lengths of string were used to extract the fuses from the mines - was characteristic of his subsequent scientific work. He was wounded during the invasion of Sicily and later joined the staff of Combined Operations Headquarters. In 1943 he was appointed MBE.

After the war he used a Commonwealth Fund Fellowship to study for a degree in chemical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. There he met T.R.C. Fox. who had just been appointed Shell Professor at Cambridge, and was also learning the subject at that time. Fox recruited Danckwerts to become a member of the original chemical engineering team in Cambridge and there, in the early 1950s, Danckwerts established an international reputation with a few remarkable papers.

They formed the starting point for many years' research by workers in a variety of topics: gas absorption, mixing, and residence time distributions. In addition to being notable contributions in themselves, these papers set the tone of post-war chemical engineering research by their fruitful application of mathematics to the basic mechanisms governing the operation of chemical plant. Subsequently Danckwerts became critical of this approach when he felt the mathematics had become more important than what he regarded as the ultimate objective, industrial innovation.

It was with industrial innovation in mind that Danckwerts left Cambridge in 1954 to work under Lord Hinton (then Sir Christopher) at the Atomic Energy Authority, but he soon returned to academic life: in 1956 he was appointed Professor of Chemical Engineering Science at Imperial College and in 1959 he returned to Cambridge as Shell Professor. There he established a flourishing research school which included an active group continuing his earlier work on surface renewal at gas-liquid interfaces.

He stimulated successive generations of research students, several of whom are still active in the field of gasabsorption which has grown in importance with the expansion of the chemical industry. Much of this work was summarised by Danckwerts when he wrote the book Gas-Liquid Reactions, published in 1970 and still the standard work on the subject. He was President of the Institution of Chemical Engineers 1965-66, and was elected FRS in 1969.

A difficult man to know intimately, he had a reticent manner, sometimes mistaken for aloofness by acquaintances. But he was the kindliest of men with a sensitive regard for colleagues. His headship of department was a burden, for he did relish administration and university committees were reckoned as 'politburos'; but he did not shrink from disagreeable jobs.

In latter, years he suffered from ill health: in spite of this he, retained his sense of humour, travelled widely and was always a brilliant letter writer. In 1960 he married Lavinia, daughter of Brigadier-General D.A. Macfarlane.

Memorials:

Town/County Connections: Cambridge, Cambridgeshire.

Books/References: 4, 7, 17, 40

Illustrations: Portrait (1)